have you ever hear about transferring electron and proton? if you have heard about this, you will be easy to understand what will I tell. it’s diode. diode is a component on electronic that made transfer electron or proton in a system of diode. there’re two kind of diode. it’s diode p (positive) and n (negative). which between two of this have a different work.
diode p (positive) is a component that it make from silicon atom. and then it was combine with Galion atom that have three covalent. You have to see the picture in the bottom.
Because of silicon atom have four place for electron, when it combine with Galion that have three covalent, it will be make electron turn into galion atom. Because the system work is accept electron. It usually also called acceptor atom. The system like this can be found in the diode p.
Diode n (negative) is a component that have different system with diode p. Atom silicon on diode combine with atom Galion that have five covalent. Atom galion have one free electron. It called donor atom. The system of it is absorb electron.
All of this combine on one of diode. Diode used to make a same direction of signal, switch on-off on electric series, and still a lot of beneficial anymore.